What is the Difference between Wet FGD and Dry FGD Systems

In category Industrial News
Published on

What is FGD System?

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems are essential technologies in the fight against air pollution and reducing harmful emissions. They play a crucial role in various industries, including power generation, chemical processing, and cement manufacturing.

FGD systems are designed to remove pollutants, particularly sulfur dioxide (SO2), from flue gases produced during combustion processes. SO2 is a major contributor to acid rain and respiratory illnesses, making its reduction vital for environmental and public health.

FGD System in industrial plant

The purpose of this article is to delve into the differences between two primary types of FGD systems: wet FGD and dry FGD. While both systems aim to achieve emission reduction, they utilize different methods and offer distinct advantages and applications.

We will explore the working principles of wet and dry FGD systems, detailing how each system effectively captures and removes pollutants from flue gases. Additionally, we will highlight the specific industries and scenarios where these FGD systems excel, considering factors such as efficiency, cost, and environmental impact.

Join us on this exploration of wet and dry FGD systems, understanding their unique attributes and how they contribute to a cleaner and more sustainable future.

What is Wet FGD System?

Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems are highly effective technologies used to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other pollutants from flue gases. These systems utilize liquid sorbents to react with and remove pollutants, making them a popular choice in various industries aiming to comply with emission regulations and improve air quality.

The working principle of wet FGD systems involves spraying a liquid sorbent, typically limestone slurry or lime, into the flue gas stream. The liquid sorbent reacts with the acidic gases, such as SO2, to form solid byproducts like calcium sulfite or sulfate. These byproducts are then collected and removed, resulting in a significant reduction in pollutant emissions.

wet FGD system working process

Their excellent removal efficiency is one of the main benefits of wet FGD systems. For SO2 and other acid gases, they are capable of achieving removal rates of up to 90% or more. Additionally, wet FGD systems provide the simultaneous removal of several contaminants, such as small particulate matter and certain heavy metals, which increases their environmental advantages.

In industries where the processes have a high sulfur content, such coal-fired power stations, oil refineries, and waste incineration facilities, wet FGD systems are frequently employed. Wet FGD is an excellent option for effective pollutant collection in these businesses’ flue gases since they generate significant volumes of SO2 and other acid gases.

Another scenario where wet FGD systems excel is in applications requiring high removal efficiency and strict emission regulations. By achieving significant reductions in SO2 emissions, wet FGD ensures compliance with environmental standards and helps industries meet their sustainability goals.

Furthermore, wet FGD systems find extensive application in large-scale industrial processes, where a substantial amount of flue gases is generated. Their ability to handle high gas volumes and effectively remove multiple pollutants makes them a reliable and preferred choice in such settings.

Wet FGD systems are powerful tools for reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide and other acid gases from flue gases. Their working principle, using liquid sorbents to react with and remove pollutants, ensures high removal efficiency. These systems offer the simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants, making them highly valuable in industries with strict emission regulations and sustainability objectives.

What is Dry FGD System?

Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems are innovative technologies designed to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other pollutants from flue gases without the use of liquid sorbents. These systems offer distinct advantages over wet FGD systems and have found widespread application in various industries seeking efficient and environmentally friendly solutions for emission control.

The working principle of dry FGD systems involves the use of dry sorbents, such as hydrated lime or sodium-based compounds, to absorb pollutants from the flue gas stream. The sorbents are injected into the gas flow, where they chemically react with the acidic gases, like SO2, forming solid byproducts. The solid byproducts are then collected through bag filters or electrostatic precipitators, efficiently removing the pollutants from the flue gases.

One of the significant advantages of dry FGD systems is their lower water usage. Unlike wet FGD systems that require a substantial amount of water for the sorbent reaction, dry FGD systems operate without the need for a liquid sorbent, significantly reducing water consumption. This not only conserves water resources but also eliminates the need for wastewater treatment and disposal, making dry FGD environmentally friendly.

Additionally, dry FGD systems offer reduced waste generation. Wet FGD systems produce a wet slurry as a byproduct, which requires proper handling and disposal. In contrast, dry FGD systems generate dry solid byproducts, reducing the amount of waste and simplifying disposal procedures.

Dry FGD systems working process

Dry FGD systems are commonly used in industries where water availability is limited or where water usage needs to be minimized. Power plants and waste-to-energy facilities often opt for dry FGD systems due to their lower water requirements and reduced waste generation. Industries in arid regions or those with strict water conservation policies find dry FGD systems particularly advantageous.

Moreover, dry FGD systems are preferred in applications where space constraints exist. These systems have a compact design and require less infrastructure compared to wet FGD systems, making them ideal for retrofitting into existing plants or facilities with limited space availability.

Dry FGD systems offer a compelling alternative for reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide and other pollutants from flue gases. Their working principle, using dry sorbents to absorb pollutants, results in lower water usage and reduced waste generation. These advantages make dry FGD systems well-suited for industries facing water scarcity, seeking environmentally friendly solutions, or dealing with space limitations.

Comparison between Wet and Dry FGD Systems

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems, both wet and dry, offer effective solutions for reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other pollutants. However, they differ in several key aspects, including efficiency, cost, and environmental impact. Understanding these differences is crucial in determining the most suitable FGD system for specific industrial applications.

1. Efficiency:

Wet FGD systems generally exhibit higher removal efficiencies for SO2 and acid gases compared to dry FGD systems. Wet FGD can achieve removal rates of up to 90% or more, making it ideal for industries with stringent emission requirements. On the other hand, dry FGD systems typically have slightly lower removal efficiencies, usually ranging from 80% to 90%.

2. Cost:

The cost of FGD systems is an essential consideration for industries. Wet FGD systems generally have higher capital costs due to the need for liquid handling and waste treatment facilities. However, wet FGD systems can offer long-term operational cost savings due to their higher efficiency. Dry FGD systems, with lower water usage and simplified waste handling, often have lower capital costs but might incur higher operating expenses.

FGD System equipment

3. Environmental Impact:

Wet FGD systems consume a significant amount of water for the sorbent reaction, potentially impacting water resources and necessitating wastewater treatment. Dry FGD systems, with their reduced water usage and solid byproduct generation, offer a more environmentally friendly option, particularly in regions facing water scarcity or stringent water regulations.

4. Flue Gas Composition and Regulatory Requirements:

The composition of flue gases plays a crucial role in FGD selection. Wet FGD systems are better suited for flue gases with high sulfur content and acid gases. Dry FGD systems might be preferred for flue gases with lower sulfur content and where space constraints exist. Regulatory requirements also influence FGD choice, as industries must comply with specific emission standards, and certain regions might have stricter regulations favoring one system over the other.

5. Combination of Wet and Dry FGD:

In some cases, a combination of wet and dry FGD systems might be employed for enhanced performance. This approach, known as hybrid FGD, capitalizes on the strengths of both systems. For example, a wet FGD system might be used as a primary stage for high SO2 removal efficiency, followed by a dry FGD system as a secondary stage to further reduce emissions or handle other pollutants.

Both wet and dry FGD systems offer effective means to reduce emissions and control pollutants. The choice between the two depends on factors such as efficiency, cost considerations, flue gas composition, and regulatory requirements. Industries must carefully assess their specific needs to select the most suitable FGD system or explore hybrid FGD approaches for optimal performance and compliance with emission regulations.

Both wet and dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems excel in specific application areas based on their strengths

Wet FGD Systems: These systems are particularly effective in industries with high sulfur content in their processes, such as coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, and waste incineration plants. They are well-suited for scenarios requiring high removal efficiency and strict emission regulations. Additionally, wet FGD systems find extensive application in large-scale industrial processes, where a substantial amount of flue gases is generated.

Applications of Wet FGD and Dry FGD Systems

Dry FGD Systems: Dry FGD systems are preferred in industries where water availability is limited or water usage needs to be minimized. Power plants and waste-to-energy facilities often opt for dry FGD systems due to their lower water requirements and reduced waste generation. They are also ideal for retrofitting into existing plants or facilities with limited space availability.

Best Practices: To maximize the efficiency and performance of both wet and dry FGD systems, the following best practices should be considered:

  • Proper System Design: Adequate system design is crucial to ensure effective pollutant capture and removal. The FGD system should be tailored to the specific emission characteristics and regulatory requirements of the industry.
  • Regular Maintenance: Regular maintenance of FGD components, such as scrubbers, precipitators, and filters, is essential to keep the system operating at its optimum efficiency.
  • Monitoring and Control: Continuous monitoring of FGD performance and flue gas parameters allows for prompt adjustments and ensures compliance with emission regulations.
  • Compliance with Emission Standards: Strict adherence to emission standards and regulations is vital to maintain environmental compliance and avoid penalties.

By following these best practices, industries can reap the full benefits of wet and dry FGD systems, achieving efficient emission control and contributing to a cleaner environment.

Send Your Message Online

Get your quotation for free! Your message will be answered in 24 hours.

Please specify your project detail as much as possible.

If you have documents such as drawings to share with us, please send an email to sales@burnertec.com and add the attachment.
The basic background of the project: locations, feedstock, products, capacity, etc.
The basic background of the project: the solution/equipment you required.
When will the project start and your budgetary information.








    Email

    WhatsAPP

    Phone